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Wissenschaftliche Publikationen

Forschung bedeutet bei Hahn-Schickard auch, die Ergebnisse in wissenschaftlichen Publikationen zu veröffentlichen.

Jahr Name
2022

Microfluidic One-Pot Digital Droplet FISH Using LNA/DNA Molecular Beacons for Bacteria Detection and Absolute Quantification

Y.-T. Kao, S. Calabrese, N. Borst, M. Lehnert, Y.-K. Lai, F. Schlenker, P. Juelg, R. Zengerle, P. Garstecki, F. von Stetten

Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 237; doi: 10.3390/bios12040237

2021

Autonomer mikromechanischer Sterilisationszyklenzähler (AuSter)

D. Hoffmann

Schlussbericht AuSter IGF-Vorhaben 20710BG

2021

Intelligente Diagnostik

S. Wagner

Abschlussbericht

2021

Integration von elektrischer Ankontaktierung und Steckern im duroplastischen Verkapselungsgehäuse als 1-Shot-Prozess (DuroConnect)

M. Haybat

Abschlussbericht

2021

Replikation von Zwei-Photonen-Lithographie-Strukturen für die Produktion strukturierter Kunststoffmikrooptiken in der Tumordiagnostik

Stefan Wagner, Serhat Sahakalkan

photonics Flashlight, Fachmagazin

2022

Gedruckte leitfähige Strukturen aus Spezial-Legierungen (SpezLe)

Tim Horter, Ingo Wirth

Abschlussbericht

Kurzfassung einblenden

Im Wachstumsmarkt der “Gedruckten Elektronik” steigt der Bedarf an metallischen Tinten und Pasten kontinuierlich an. Neben Edelmetallen wie Silber (z.B. für Leiterbahnen), Gold (z.B. für medizintechnische Anwendungen) und Platin (z.B. für Temperatursensoren) werden druckbare Metalllegierungen (z.B. CuNiMn) für Dehnungs- und Temperatursensoren, für Heizstrukturen oder für hochgenaue druckbare Widerstände benötigt. Andere Metalllegierungen wie AgPd oder AgPdCu eignen sich z.B. bei Lotverbindungen zur Ankontaktierung von elektronischen Bauelementen.

2021

Fertigungsbegleitende Oberflächencharakterisierung zur Qualitäts- und Effizienzsteigerung bei der Herstellung komplexer kunststoffbasierter mechatronischer Baugruppen (FOQus

A. Knöller

Abschlussbericht

Kurzfassung einblenden

Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens FOQus war die Entwicklung einer Methodik zur fertigungsbegleitenden bzw. Inline-fähigen Oberflächencharakterisierung von komplexen kunststoffbasierten mechatronischen Baugruppen, sowie die Optimierung aller Prozessschritte bei deren Herstellung, um den Ausschuss möglichst zu minimieren.

2021

Development and Construction of a Parameterizable Condition Classification System for Electromagnetic Proportional Valves using Neuronal Networks (Nemoh / Neuromorphe Hardware für Anwendungen mit KI)

D. Rossbach, M. Rüb, M. Kuderer, Y. Manoli

MikroSystemTechnik Congress 2021, 8-10 Nov. 2021, Stuttgart-Ludwigsburg, Germany

Kurzfassung einblenden

In this paper the development of a compact condition classification system for electromagnetic proportional valves is shown. It allows the generation of training data as well as a fast testing and comparison of different trained neuronal networks. By using quantization and pruning, a neuronal network with drastically reduced complexity has been created, so an FPGA implementation was possible. The developed and implemented network shows a very high classification rate and can distinguish 12 different error reasons of the valves. The system requires the measurement of the supply current only, which allows a simple integration of such a false detection circuitry into existing systems. In the future, the system can be modified easily, e.g. to use and test a hardware based AI accelerator instead of the FPGA implementation.

 

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2021

Entwurf einer CMOS-integrierten, rauscharmen Stromausleseschaltung mit niedriger Eingangskapazität für die medizinische Diagnostik via biologischer Nanoporen

M. Amayreh, S. Elsaegh, N. Butz, M. Kuderer, Y. Manoli

MikroSystemTechnik Kongress 2021, 08.11.2021 - 10.11.2021, Stuttgart-Ludwigsburg, Deutschland


Link zum Paper

2021

A survey of machine-learning techniques for condition monitoringand predictive maintenance of bearings in grinding machines

S. Schwendemann, Z. Amjad, A. Sikora

Computers in Industry, Volume 125, Feb. 2021, 103380

Kurzfassung einblenden

It is important to minimize the unscheduled downtime of machines caused by outages of machine components in highly automated production lines. Considering machine tools such as, grinding machines, the bearing inside of spindles is one of the most critical components. In the last decade, research has increasingly focused on fault detection of bearings. In addition, the rise of machine learning concepts has also intensified interest in this area. However, up to date, there is no single one-fits-all solution for predictive maintenance of bearings. Most research so far has only looked at individual bearing types at a time.
This paper gives an overview of the most important approaches for bearing-fault analysis in grinding machines. There are two main parts of the analysis presented in this paper. The first part presents the classification of bearing faults, which includes the detection of unhealthy conditions, the position of the error (e.g. at the inner or at the outer ring of the bearing) and the severity, which detects the size of the fault. The second part presents the prediction of remaining useful life, which is important for estimating the productive use of a component before a potential failure, optimizing the replacement costs and minimizing downtime.

 

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2021

Latency reduction for narrowband URLLC networks: a performance evaluation

A. Zubair, K. A. Nsiah, B. Hilt, J.-P. Lauffenburger, A. Sikora

Wireless Networks 27, 2577-2593

Kurzfassung einblenden

Fifth-generation (5G) cellular mobile networks are expected to support mission-critical low latency applications in addition to mobile broadband services, where fourth-generation (4G) cellular networks are unable to support Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC). However, it might be interesting to understand which latency requirements can be met with both 4G and 5G networks. In this paper, we discuss (1) the components contributing to the latency of cellular networks and (2) evaluate control-plane and user-plane latencies for current-generation narrowband cellular networks and point out the potential improvements to reduce the latency of these networks, (3) present, implement and evaluate latency reduction techniques for latency-critical applications. The two elements we detected, namely the short transmission time interval and the semi-persistent scheduling are very promising as they allow to shorten the delay to processing received information both into the control and data planes. We then analyze the potential of latency reduction techniques for URLLC applications. To this end, we develop these techniques into the long term evolution (LTE) module of ns-3 simulator and then evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques into two different application fields: industrial automation and intelligent transportation systems. Our detailed evaluation results from simulations indicate that LTE can satisfy the low-latency requirements for a large choice of use cases in each field.

 

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2021

Security Audit of a Blockchain-Based Industrial Application Platform

J. Stodt, D. Schönle, C. Reich, F. G. Ghajar, D. Welte, A. Sikora

MDPI Algorithms, Volume 14, Issue 4

Kurzfassung einblenden

In recent years, both the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies have been highly influential and revolutionary. IoT enables companies to embrace Industry 4.0, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which benefits from communication and connectivity to reduce cost and to increase productivity through sensor-based autonomy. These automated systems can be further refined with smart contracts that are executed within a blockchain, thereby increasing transparency through continuous and indisputable logging. Ideally, the level of security for these IoT devices shall be very high, as they are specifically designed for this autonomous and networked environment. This paper discusses a use case of a company with legacy devices that wants to benefit from the features and functionality of blockchain technology. In particular, the implications of retrofit solutions are analyzed. The use of the BISS:4.0 platform is proposed as the underlying infrastructure. BISS:4.0 is intended to integrate the blockchain technologies into existing enterprise environments. Furthermore, a security analysis of IoT and blockchain present attacks and countermeasures are presented that are identified and applied to the mentioned use case.

 

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2021

AI Approaches for IoT Security Analysis

M. A. Messaad, C. Jerad, A. Sikora

Proceedings of Sixth Intelligent Systems, Technologies and Applications (ISTA), Springer Singapore, ISBN 9789811607295, 47-70

2021

A Mechanism for Seamless Cryptographic Rekeying in Real-Time Communication Systems

H. Bühler, A. Walz, A. Sikora

2021 17th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), 09.-11.06.2021, Linz, Austria

Kurzfassung einblenden

Cryptographic protection of messages requires frequent updates of the symmetric cipher key used for encryption and decryption, respectively. Protocols of legacy IT security, like TLS, SSH, or MACsec implement rekeying under the assumption that, first, application data exchange is allowed to stall occasionally and, second, dedicated control messages to orchestrate the process can be exchanged. In real-time automation applications, the first is generally prohibitive, while the second may induce problematic traffic patterns on the network. We present a novel seamless rekeying approach, which can be embedded into cyclic application data exchanges. Although, being agnostic to the underlying real-time communication system, we developed a demonstrator emulating the widespread industrial Ethernet system PROFINET IO and successfully use this rekeying mechanism.

 

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2021

IoT-enabled Smart Energy Metering Solution with Soft-UPS for Developing Countries

M. Aftab, A. N. Hameed, A. Samiq, M. Bilal, Shah, M. A. Pasha, N. A. Zaffar, A .G. Dant, A. Sikora

The 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, 22.-25.02.2021, Cracow, Poland

Kurzfassung einblenden

Due to its potential in improving the efficiency of energy supply, smart energy metering (SEM) has become an area of interest with the surge in Internet of Things (IoT). SEM entails remote monitoring and control of the sensors and actuators associated with the energy supply system. This provides a flexible platform to conceive and implement new data driven Demand Side Management (DSM) mechanisms. The IoT enablement allows the data to be gathered and analyzed at requisite granularity. In addition to efficient use of energy resources and provisioning of power, developing countries face an additional challenge of temporal mismatch in generation capacity and load factors. This leads to widespread deployment of inefficient and expensive Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) solutions for limited power provisioning during resulting blackouts. Our proposed “Soft-UPS” allows dynamic matching of load and generation through a combination of managed curtailment. This eliminates inefficiencies in the energy and power value chain and allows a data-driven approach to solving a widespread problem in developing countries, simultaneously reducing both upfront and running costs of conventional UPS and storage. A scalable and modular platform is proposed and implemented in this paper. The architecture employs “WiMODino” using LoRaWAN with a “Lite Gateway” and SQLite repository for data storage. Role based access to the system through an android application has also been demonstrated for monitoring and control.

 

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2021

Correction of Uncertain Access Points Positions in Underground Mines Using SLAM Approach

D. Larionov, O. Lukashenko, A. Moschevikin, R. Voronov, A. Sikora

The 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, 22.-25.02.2021, Cracow, Poland

Kurzfassung einblenden

This paper presents an extended version of a previously published Bayesian algorithm for the automatic correction of the positions of the equipment on the map with simultaneous mobile object trajectory localization (SLAM) in underground mine environment represented by undirected graph. The proposed extended SLAM algorithm requires much less preliminary data on possible equipment positions and uses an additional resample move algorithm to significantly improve the overall performance.

 

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2021

Towards a Formal Verification of Seamless Cryptographic Rekeying in Real-Time Communication Systems

H. Buehler, A. Zbrzezny, A.M. Zbrzezny, A. Walz, A. Sikora

The 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, 22.-25.02.2021 , Cracow, Poland

Kurzfassung einblenden

This paper makes two contributions to the verification of communication protocols by transition systems. Firstly, the paper presents a modeling of a cyclic communication protocol using a synchronized network of transition systems. This protocol enables seamless cryptographic rekeying embedded into cyclic messages. Secondly, we test the protocol using the model checking verification technique.

 

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2021

Bearing fault diagnosis with intermediate domain based Layered Maximum Mean Discrepancy: A new transfer learning approach

S. Schwendemann, Z. Amjad, A. Sikora

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 105, Oct. 2021, 104414, 1-14

Kurzfassung einblenden

In the last decade, deep learning models for condition monitoring of mechanical systems increasingly gained importance. Most of the previous works use data of the same domain (e.g., bearing type) or of a large amount of (labeled) samples. This approach is not valid for many real-world scenarios from industrial use-cases where only a small amount of data, often unlabeled, is available.
In this paper, we propose, evaluate, and compare a novel technique based on an intermediate domain, which creates a new representation of the features in the data and abstracts the defects of rotating elements such as bearings. The results based on an intermediate domain related to characteristic frequencies show an improved accuracy of up to 32 % on small labeled datasets compared to the current state-of-the-art in the time-frequency domain.
Furthermore, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture is proposed for transfer learning. We also propose and evaluate a new approach for transfer learning, which we call Layered Maximum Mean Discrepancy (LMMD). This approach is based on the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) but extends it by considering the special characteristics of the proposed intermediate domain. The presented approach outperforms the traditional combination of Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT) and S-Transform with MMD on all datasets for unsupervised as well as for semi-supervised learning. In most of our test cases, it also outperforms other state-of-the-art techniques.
This approach is capable of using different types of bearings in the source and target domain under a wide variation of the rotation speed.

 

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2021

Cryptographic Protection of Cyclic Real-Time Communication in Ethernet-Based Fieldbuses: How Much Hardware is Required?

M. Skuballa, A. Walz, H. Bühler, A. Sikora

2021 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 7.-10.09.2021, Västerås, Sweden

Kurzfassung einblenden

It seems to be a widespread impression that the use of strong cryptography inevitably imposes a prohibitive burden on industrial communication systems, at least inasmuch as real-time requirements in cyclic fieldbus communications are concerned. AES-GCM is a leading cryptographic algorithm for authenticated encryption, which protects data against disclosure and manipulations. We study the use of both hardware and software-based implementations of AES-GCM. By simulations as well as measurements on an FPGA-based prototype setup we gain and substantiate an important insight: for devices with a 100 Mbps full-duplex link, a single low-footprint AES-GCM hardware engine can deterministically cope with the worst-case computational load, i.e., even if the device maintains a maximum number of cyclic communication relations with individual cryptographic keys. Our results show that hardware support for AES-GCM in industrial fieldbus components may actually be very lightweight.

 

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2021

A Novel Key Generation Method for Group-Based Physically Unclonable Function Designs

S. Abdolinezhad, L. Zimmermann, A. Sikora

MDPI Electronics, Volume 10, Issue 2. 2597, 1-12

Kurzfassung einblenden

In recent years, physically unclonable functions (PUFs) have gained significant attraction in IoT security applications, such as cryptographic key generation and entity authentication. PUFs extract the uncontrollable production characteristics of different devices to generate unique fingerprints for security applications. When generating PUF-based secret keys, the reliability and entropy of the keys are vital factors. This study proposes a novel method for generating PUF-based keys from a set of measurements. Firstly, it formulates the group-based key generation problem as an optimization problem and solves it using integer linear programming (ILP), which guarantees finding the optimum solution. Then, a novel scheme for the extraction of keys from groups is proposed, which we call positioning syndrome coding (PSC). The use of ILP as well as the introduction of PSC facilitates the generation of high-entropy keys with low error correction costs. These new methods have been tested by applying them on the output of a capacitor network PUF. The results confirm the application of ILP and PSC in generating high-quality keys.

 

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